Legal Standards for Milk and Dairy products
Milk is the normal mammary secretion derived from complete milking of one or more healthy milch animal without either addition thereto or extraction there from. It shall be free from colostrum.
Standardized Milk means cow milk or buffalo milk or sheep milk or goat milk or a combination of any
of these milk that has been standardised to a minimum fat percentage of 4.5 and solids not fat percentage (SNF) of 8.5 by adjustment of the milk solids. Standardised milk shall be pasteurised and shall show a negative Phosphatase Test.
The term pasteurization when used in association with milk of different classes, means heating milk of different classes by a heat treatment to a pre-determined temperature-time combination and then cooling to a suitable temperature before distribution. Pasteurized milk of different classes shall show a negative phosphatase test.
The term “pasteurization”, “pasteurized”, and other similar terms shall be taken to refer to the process of heating every particle of milk of different classes to at least 63°C and holding at such temperature continuously for at least 30 minutes or heating it to at least 71.5°C (for all practical purposes, this is taken at 72°C) and holding at such temperature continuously for at least 15 seconds or to any approved time–temperature combination that will serve to give a negative phosphatase test.
All pasteurized milk of different classes shall be immediately cooled to a temperature of 5°C or less.
Toned milk means the product prepared by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both with fresh skimmed
milk or by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both that has been standardized to fat and solids-not-fat percentage
of 3 and 8.5 respectively by adjustment of milk solids. It shall be pasteurised and shall show a negative phosphatase test. When fat or dry non-fat-milk solids are used, it shall be ensured that the product remains
homogeneous and no deposition of solids takes place on quiescent standing.
Double Toned Milk
Double toned milk refers to a product prepared by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both with fresh skimmed milk or by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both that has been standardized to a fat percentage of 1.5 and solids not percentage of 9.0 by adjustment of milk solids. It shall be pasteurized and shall show a negative phosphatase test. When fat or dry non fat solids are used, it shall be ensured that the product remains homogeneous and no deposition of solids take place on quiescent standing.
Milk products means the products obtained from milk such as cream, malai, curd, skimmed milk curd,
chhanna, skimmed-milk chhanna, cheese, processed cheese, ice-cream, milk ices, condensed milk-sweetened and
unsweetened, condensed skimmed milk-sweetened and unsweetened, milk powder, skimmed milk powder, partly skimmed milk powder, khoa, infant milk food, table butter and desi butter. Milk products shall not contain any substance not found in milk unless specified in the standards.
Flavored milk by whatever name called, may contain (whole, fragmented or ground) chocolate, coffee or any other edible flavor, edible food colors and cane sugar. Flavored milk shall be pasteurized, sterilized or boiled. The type of milk and the contents shall be mentioned on the label.
A combination of milk of cow, buffalo, sheep, goat or any other milch animal and may be a combination of any of these milk which has been made with a minimum fat percentage of 4.5 and solids not fat percentage (SNF) of 8.5 by adjustment of the milk solids.
The homogenized product prepared from milk fat, non-fat milk solids and water. Recombined milk shall be pasteurized and shall show a negative phosphatase test and has been standardized to a fat and solids not fat percentage of 3 and 8.5 respectively by adjustment of milk solids.
The product prepared from milk from which almost all the milk fat has been removed mechanically and contains a fat percentage of not more than 0.5 and solids not fat percentage of not less than 8.7.
The milk which has been brought to boil.
The term sterilization when used in association with milk, means heating the milk continuously to a temperature of 115°C for 15 minutes or 130°C for one to two seconds in a continuous flow and packed under aseptic condition in hermetically sealed containers to ensure preservation at room temperature for a period not less than 15 days from the date of manufacture.
General Grading Requirements for milk and dairy products
All non fat dry milk, instant non fat dry milk, dry whole milk, dry buttermilk and dry buttermilk product for human consumption shall conform in all respects to Federal and State Government regulations.
The dry milk product shall be made from fresh milk to which no preservative, alkali, neutralizing agent or other chemical has been added and which has been pasteurized in the liquid state, before concentration at a temperature of 161°F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction.
The dry milk product shall be reasonably uniform in composition. The color shall be white to cream and free from a brown or yellow, typical of overheated product and free from any unnatural color. It shall be substantially free from brown specks.
The flavor and odor of dry milk on reconstitution shall be sweet, clean and free from rancid, tallowy or other objectionable flavors and odors.
The dry milk product shall be packed in containers, suitable to protect and preserve the contents without significant impairment of quality with respect to sanitation, contamination and moisture content under various customary conditions of handling, transportation and storage.
The presumptive coliform test of the dry milk product shall not exceed 10 per gram.
The dry milk product shall be free from extraneous matter as described under Sec 402 (a) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
The government of India has devised different laws and regulations that govern the Indian food processing industry. The following Acts / orders (serially numbered from 1 to 8) have become defunct with the implementation of " FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2006".
1. The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954).
2. The Fruit Products Order, 1955.
3. The Meat Food Products Order, 1973.
4. The Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947.
5. The Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order, 1998.
6. The Solvent Extracted Oil, De oiled Meal, and Edible Flour
(Control) Order, 1967.
7. The Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992.
8. Any other order issued under the Essential Commodities
Act, 1955 (10 of 1955) relating to food.
1. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
2. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI)
They are related to
1. Industrial License
2. Foreign Investment
3. Foreign Technology Agreements
4. Import of Capital Goods
5. Import of Second Hand Capital Goods
6. Dividend Balancing