Sterilized Milk

This is defined as milk, which has been heated to a temperature of 100°C or above for such lengths of time that it remains fit for consumption for at least 7 days at room temperatures. Usually the milk is heated to108-111°C for 25 to 30 min. Commercially sterilized milk is rarely sterile in the strict bacteriological sense. This is because the requirements for the complete sterility conflict with the consumer’s preference for normal colour and flavour in the sterilized product.

Requirements for sterilized milk

The sterilized milk must keep with out

  • deterioration i.e. remain stable and be of good commercial value for a sufficient period to satisfy commercial requirements
  • be free of microorganisms harmful to the health of the consumer i.e. toxigenic, pathogenic organisms and toxins
  • be free of microorganisms liable to proliferate i.e. it should not show signs of bacterial growth

Flavoured Milk

It is milk to which some flavours have been added. When the term milk is used the product should contain a milk fat percentage of a least equal to the minimum legal requirement for market milk. But when the fat level is lower (1-2 per cent) the term ‘drink’ should be used.

Acidophilus Milk

It is fermented milk, produced by development in milk of a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is claimed that acidophilus milk has therapeutic and health promoting properties. It is also claimed that the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus under the conditions existing in the intestinal tract will replace undesirable putrefactive fermentations with a beneficial lactic fermentation.

Homogenized Milk

It is milk, which has been treated in such a manner as to insure break up of fat globules to such an extent that after 48 h of quiescent storage no visible cream separation occurs on the milk; and the fat percentage of the milk in the top 100 ml of milk in a quart bottle or proportionate volumes in containers of other sizes, does not differ by more than 10 per cent of itself from the fat percentage of the remaining milk as determined after thorough mixing.

In the properly homogenized milk, the fat globules present in the milk are split in to less than 2 microns in size.

Soft Curd Milk

It is milk that forms a soft curd when coagulated with rennet or pepsin under standardized procedure. Soft curd milk has a curd tension of less than 25 g.

Mineralized Milk

It is milk to which some minerals have been added.

Vitaminized or Irradiated Milk

Vitaminized milk is milk to which one or more vitamins are added. Irradiated milk is milk in which the vitamin D content has been increased by exposure to ultra violet rays. Addition of vitamins (and minerals) to milk is called fortification and such milk is called fortified milk. The vitamins and minerals may be added singly or in combination as multi-vitamin and mineral milk preparations.

Frozen Concentrated Milk

It refers to milk, which has been partially concentrated and then solidified by freezing.

Fermented Milk

It refers to such milk, which has been made by employing selected microorganisms to develop the characteristic flavour and / or body and texture.

Bulgarian Buttermilk

It refers to such milk produced by fermentation with Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The temperature of incubation will be usually higher in the range of 40 – 43°C with a higher acidity in the finished product.


This is a lactic acid – alcohol fermented milk originated in Russia. The culture used for fermentation may be Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The finished product contains a higher alcohol content of up to 2.5 per cent.


It is a self carbonated milk beverage containing 1 per cent lactic acid and 1 per cent alcohol. The fermentation is usually done by kefir grains, which contains Streptococcus lactis, Betabacterium caucasium, keir bacilli and lactose fermenting yeasts.

Standardized Milk

It is milk whose fat and / or solids not fat content have been adjusted to certain pre determined level. The standardization can be done by partially skimming the fat in the milk with a cream separator or by admixture with fresh or reconstituted skim milk in proper proportions. In India, as per PFA Rules (1976), the standardized milk for liquid consumption should contain a minimum of 4.5 per cent fat and 8.5 per cent solids not fat.

Recombined Milk

It refers to the product obtained when butter oil (otherwise known as dry / anhydrous milk fat), skim milk powder and water are combined in the correct proportions to yield fluid milk. In India, as per PFA Rules (1976), the recombined milk should contain a minimum of 3.0 per cent fat and 8.5 per cent solids not fat.

Reconstituted /Rehydrated Milk

This refers to milk prepared by dispersing whole milk powder (also called dried whole milk) in water approximately in the proportion of 1 part powder to 7-8 parts water. Spray dried milk powder is usually used since it is more soluble and produces less sediment.

Toned Milk

Also called single toned milk, refers to milk obtained by the addition of water and skim milk powder to whole milk. In practice, whole milk from buffalo is mixed with reconstituted spray dried skim milk for the production of toned milk. In India, as per PFA Rules (1976), the toned milk should contain a minimum of 3.0 per cent fat and 8.5 per cent solids not fat.

Double Toned Milk

Refers to milk obtained by the addition of water and skim milk powder to whole milk. Usually buffalo whole milk is mixed with reconstituted spray dried skim milk. In India, as per PFA Rules (1976), the double toned milk should contain a minimum of 1.5 per cent fat and 9.0 per cent solids not fat.

Carrot ENRICHED Milk

The rich nutrient content of carrot, especially, Vitamin A and its precursor carotene can not be questioned. It is also rich in health giving fibre. Some people relish carrot as such in its raw form and some cook and use it. Another form of utilization is extraction of juice from carrot. But carrot juice when consumed as such will not be tasty. It has to be added with sugar. Just to make the carrot juice tasty and at the same time utilize the nutrients present in the juice in its natural form, carrot juice can be added with milk to make “CARROT ENRICHED MILK”.

Learn more about how to prepare carrot enriched milk?